July 3, 2022
The Psychology and Sociology of Wrongful Convictions Book

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The Psychology and Sociology of Wrongful Convictions

By Wendy J Koen,C. Michael Bowers
  • ISBN Code: : 0128027029
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Pages : 402
  • Category : Law
  • Reads : 591
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-psychology-and-sociology-of-wrongful-convictions.pdf

Book Excerpt :

Wrongful convictions are the result of faulty or false scientific evidence in 50% of the cases. Defense counsel is often at a great disadvantage in defending against evidence based on science. Illusory Evidence: The Psychology and Sociology of Wrongful Convictions is written for the non-scientist, to make complicated scientific information clear and concise enough for attorneys and judges to master. This is obtained by providing case studies to simplify issues in forensic psychology for the legal professional. Increases the courts’ knowledge about areas of psychology that have been debunked, have advanced, or have been refined by the scientific community Covers issues in psychological forensics, namely: Profiling, Psychological Defenses, Mitigation, Eyewitness Testimony/Identification, Child Testimony, Repressed Memories, False Confessions and Moral Panic Trains prosecuting attorneys about the present state of the forensic psychology, to avoid relying only on legal precedent and will not present flawed science to the court Provides defense attorneys the knowledge necessary to competently defend where forensic psychology plays a part in a prosecution Arms innocence projects and appellate attorneys with the latest information to challenge convictions Uses case studies to simplify issues in forensic psychology for the legal professional

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Wrongful Convictions and Miscarriages of Justice

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1135072256
  • Total of Pages : 456
  • Category : Social Science
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  • Pdf File: wrongful-convictions-and-miscarriages-of-justice.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This innovative work builds on Huff and Killias’ earlier publication (2008), but is broader and more thoroughly comparative in a number of important ways: (1) while focusing heavily on wrongful convictions, it places the subject of wrongful convictions in the broader contextual framework of miscarriages of justice and provides discussions of different types of miscarriages of justice that have not previously received much scholarly attention by criminologists; (2) it addresses, in much greater detail, the questions of how, and how often, wrongful convictions occur; (3) it provides more in-depth consideration of the role of forensic science in helping produce wrongful convictions and in helping free those who have been wrongfully convicted; (4) it offers new insights into the origins and current progress of the innocence movement, as well as the challenges that await the exonerated when they return to "free" society; (5) it assesses the impact of the use of alternatives to trials (especially plea bargains in the U.S. and summary proceedings and penal orders in Europe) in producing wrongful convictions; (6) it considers how the U.S. and Canada have responded to 9/11 and the increased threat of terrorism by enacting legislation and adopting policies that may exacerbate the problem of wrongful conviction; and (7) it provides in-depth considerations of two topics related to wrongful conviction: voluntary false confessions and convictions which, although technically not wrongful since they are based on law violations, represent another type of miscarriage of justice since they are due solely to unjust laws resulting from political repression.

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Book Short Summary:

Psychology plays an increasingly important role in today's society. Its influence can be seen all around us - be it in the home, the workplace, the school or our private lives. A uniquely diverse discipline, it ranges from social psychology to biological aspects of behaviour, and from basic research to the applied professions. This Companion Encyclopedia covers all these main branches of psychological research and professional practice. The thematic arrangement is the result of the Editor's extensive research into syllabi, from which he distilled the 13 most frequently taught units. Students can consult and be referred to sections relating to their lecture programme, and can find lucid definitions of frequently used terms in the Glossary. Headings and sub-headings are clearly highlighted at the beginning of each chapter - ideal for quick reference. * Provides authoritative and in-depth reference material on all major branches of psychological research and professional practice * Contributors include many of the world's most eminent psychologists * Written in a lively style without assuming previous knowledge of the subject * Structured according to the core topics appearing most often as discrete modules in contemporary psychology courses * Detailed bibliographies, further reading sections, exhaustive index and glossary of technical terms * Containing 165 supporting illustrations

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  • Pdf File: advancing-critical-criminology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Advancing Critical Criminology constitutes a timely addition to the growing body of knowledge on critical criminology scholarship. DeKeseredy and Perry have assembled a volume that provides scholars with an in-depth review of the extant literature on several major branches of criminology as well as examples of how critical criminologists apply their theoretical perspectives to substantive topics, such as drugs, interpersonal violence, and rural crime.

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  • Pdf File: cognition-of-the-law.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book’s basic hypothesis – which it proposes to test with a cognitive-sociological approach – is that legal behavior, like every form of human behavior, is directed and framed by biosocial constraints that are neither entirely genetic nor exclusively cultural. As such, from a sociological perspective the law can be seen as a super-meme, that is, as a biosocial constraint that develops only in complex societies. This super-meme theory, by highlighting a fundamental distinction between defensive and assertive biases, might explain the false contradiction between law as a static and historical phenomenon, and law as a dynamic and promotional element. Socio-legal scholars today have to face the challenge of pursuing a truly interdisciplinary approach, connecting all the fields that can contribute to building a modern theory of normative behavior and social action. Understanding and framing concepts such as rationality, emotion, or justice can help to overcome the significant divide between micro and macro sociological knowledge. Social scientists who are interested in the law must be able to master the epistemological discourses of different disciplines, and to produce fruitful syntheses and bridge-operations so as to understand the legal phenomenon from each different point of view. The book adopts four perspectives: sociological, psychological, biological-evolutionary and cognitive. All of them have the potential to be mutually integrated, and constitute that general social science that provides common ground for exchange. The goal is to arrive at a broad and integrated view of the socio-legal phenomenon, paving the way for a comprehensive theory of norm-oriented and norm-perceived actions.

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  • Pdf File: experiencing-imprisonment.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The growing body of work on imprisonment, desistance and rehabilitation has mainly focused on policies and treatment programmes and how they are delivered. Experiencing Imprisonment reflects recent developments in research that focus on the active role of the offender in the process of justice. Bringing together experts from around the world and presenting a range of comparative critical research relating to key themes of the pains of imprisonment, stigma, power and vulnerability, this book explores the various ways in which offenders relate to the justice systems and how these relationships impact the nature and effectiveness of their efforts to reduce offending. Experiencing Imprisonment showcases cutting-edge international and comparative critical research on how imprisonment is experienced by those people living and working within imprisonment institutions in North America and Northern, Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Scandinavia. The research explores the subjective experience of imprisonment from the perspective of a variety of staff and prisoner groups, including juveniles, adult female and male prisoners, older prisoners, sex offenders, wrongfully convicted offenders and newly released prisoners. Offering a unique view of what it is like to be a prisoner or a prison officer, the chapters in this book argue for a prioritisation of understanding the subjective experiences of imprisonment as essential to developing effective and humane systems of punishment. This is essential reading for academics and students involved in the study of criminology, penology and the sociology of imprisonment. It will also be of interest to Criminal Justice practitioners and policymakers around the globe.

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  • Pdf File: principles-of-kinesic-interview-and-interrogation.pdf

Book Short Summary:

How do you interpret a person‘s behavior during their interview? Some people say it‘s an innate quality that can‘t be taught. But anyone who‘s read Stan Walters Principles of Kinesic Interview and Interrogation knows that is FALSE. The overwhelming success of the first edition and the numerous success stories credited to the book prove that

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  • Pdf File: practicing-forensic-criminology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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  • Pdf File: psychological-expertise-in-court.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Expertise in Court: Perspectives on Testimony is the second of a two-volume set on the Psychology of the Courtroom. The authors, a renowned group of psychology and legal scholars, offer definitive coverage of the use of psychological expert testimony and evidence in a variety of legal contexts. They explore the controversies that surround it, from questions of its admissibility to its effects on eventual juror decisions. A wide range of topics are covered including system and estimator variables in eyewitness identification, expert testimony on psychological syndromes, the insanity defence and sexual harassment, how child sexual abuse is used by the courts, and recent research on false confessions. They also provide a comparative analysis exploring how different types of psychological expert testimony and evidence are used by different countries’ legal systems. All the chapters conclude by making specific recommendations for how psychological research and information could be better utilized by courts around the world.

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  • Pdf File: the-handbook-of-juvenile-delinquency-and-juvenile-justice.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This handbook is an up-to-date examination of advances in the fields of juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice that includes interdisciplinary perspectives from leading scholars and practitioners. Examines advances in the fields of juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice with interdisciplinary perspectives from leading scholars and practitioners Provides a current state of both fields, while also assessing where they have been and defining where they should go in years to come Addresses developments in theory, research, and policy, as well as cultural changes and legal shifts Contains summaries of juvenile justice trends from around the world, including the US, the Netherlands, Brazil, Russia, India, South Africa, and China Covers central issues in the scholarly literature, such as social learning theories, opportunity theories, criminal processing, labeling and deterrence, gangs and crime, community-based sanctions and reentry, victimization, and fear of crime

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  • Pdf File: social-psychology-of-punishment-of-crime.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In recent years, research interest has increased both in the needs of punishment by the public and in the psychological processes underlying decisions on sentencing. This comprehensive look at the social psychology of punishment focuses on recent advances, and presents new findings based on the authors’ own empirical research. Chapters explore the application of social psychology and social cognitive theories to decision making in the context of punishments by judges and the punitiveness of laymen. The book also highlights the different legal systems in the UK, US and Europe, discussing how attitudes to punishment can change in the context of cultural and social development.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
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  • Total of Pages : 180
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  • Members : 236
  • Pdf File: the-victimology-of-a-wrongful-conviction.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book exposes the myriad of victims of wrongful conviction by going beyond the innocent person who has been wrongfully incarcerated to include the numerous indirect victims who suffer collaterally. In no way overlooking the egregious effects on the wrongfully convicted, this book widens the net to also examine consequences for family, friends, co-workers, witnesses, the initial victims of the crime, and society in general—all indirect victims who are often forgotten in treatments of wrongful conviction. Utilizing interviews of exonerees and indirect victims, the authors capture the tangible and intangible costs of victimization across the board. The prison experience is examined through the lens of an innocent person, and the psychological impact of incarceration for the exoneree is explored. Special attention is given to the often-ignored experience of female exonerees and to the impact of race as a compounding factor in a vast number of miscarriages of justice. The book concludes with an overview of the victimization experiences that follow exonerees upon release. Unique to this book is its interdisciplinary approach to the troubling subject of wrongful conviction, combining perspectives from a number of fields, including criminal justice, criminology, victimology, psychology, sociology, social justice, history, political science, and law. Undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines will find this book helpful in their respective areas of study, and professionals in the legal system will benefit from appreciation of the far-reaching costs of wrongful convictions.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
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  • Pdf File: prisons-and-community-corrections.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This edited collection brings together leading international academics and researchers to provide a comprehensive body of literature that informs the future of prison and wider corrective services training, education, research, policy and practice. This volume addresses a range of 21st century issues faced by modern corrective services including, prison overcrowding, young and ageing offenders, mental health, sexual assault in corrective facilities, trans communities in corrective services and radicalisation of offenders within corrective services. Taking a multi-disciplinary approach and drawing together theoretical and practice debates, the book comprehensively considers current challenges and future trajectories for corrective systems, the people within them and service delivery. This volume will also be a welcomed resource for academics and researchers who have an interest in prisons, corrective services practice and broader criminal justice issues. It will also be of interest to those who want to join corrective services, those who are currently training to become personnel in corrective services and related allied professions, and those who are currently working in the field.

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  • Pdf File: crimes-of-the-centuries.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This multivolume resource is the most extensive reference of its kind, offering a comprehensive summary of the misdeeds, perpetrators, and victims involved in the most memorable crime events in American history. • Supports national standards curriculum • Offers an extensive selection of primary documents to encourage critical thinking and reading practice • Includes photos and illustrations to help bring content to life • Features sidebars with illuminating crime facts and interesting anecdotes

Wrongful Conviction and Criminal Justice Reform

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1135077444
  • Total of Pages : 334
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  • Pdf File: wrongful-conviction-and-criminal-justice-reform.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Wrongful Conviction and Criminal Justice Reform is an important addition to the literature and teaching on innocence reform. This book delves into wrongful convictions studies but expands upon them by offering potential reforms that would alleviate the problem of wrongful convictions in the criminal justice system. Written to be accessible to students, Wrongful Conviction and Criminal Justice Reform is a main text for wrongful convictions courses or a secondary text for more general courses in criminal justice, political science, and law school innocence clinics.

Life after Death Row

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Rutgers University Press
  • Book Code : 0813553393
  • Total of Pages : 296
  • Category : Social Science
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  • Pdf File: life-after-death-row.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Life after Death Row examines the post-incarceration struggles of individuals who have been wrongly convicted of capital crimes, sentenced to death, and subsequently exonerated. Saundra D. Westervelt and Kimberly J. Cook present eighteen exonerees’ stories, focusing on three central areas: the invisibility of the innocent after release, the complicity of the justice system in that invisibility, and personal trauma management. Contrary to popular belief, exonerees are not automatically compensated by the state or provided adequate assistance in the transition to post-prison life. With no time and little support, many struggle to find homes, financial security, and community. They have limited or obsolete employment skills and difficulty managing such daily tasks as grocery shopping or banking. They struggle to regain independence, self-sufficiency, and identity. Drawing upon research on trauma, recovery, coping, and stigma, the authors weave a nuanced fabric of grief, loss, resilience, hope, and meaning to provide the richest account to date of the struggles faced by people striving to reclaim their lives after years of wrongful incarceration.

The Criminal Cases Review Commission

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  • Category : Political Science
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  • Pdf File: the-criminal-cases-review-commission.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book focuses on the world's first publicly-funded body- the Criminal Cases Review Commission- to review alleged miscarriages of justice, set up following notorious cases such as the Birmingham Six in the UK. Providing a critique of its operations, the book shows that its help to innocent victims of wrongful conviction is merely incidental.

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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
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  • Total of Pages : 400
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  • Pdf File: mind-society.pdf

Book Short Summary:

How do minds make societies, and how do societies change? Paul Thagard systematically connects neural and psychological explanations of mind with major social sciences (social psychology, sociology, politics, economics, anthropology, and history) and professions (medicine, law, education, engineering, and business). Social change emerges from interacting social and mental mechanisms. Many economists and political scientists assume that individuals make rational choices, despite the abundance of evidence that people frequently succumb to thinking errors such as motivated inference. Much of sociology and anthropology is taken over with postmodernist assumptions that everything is constructed on the basis of social relations such as power, with no inkling that these relations are mediated by how people think about each other. Mind-Society displays the interdependence of the cognitive and social sciences by describing the interconnections among mental and social mechanisms, which interact to generate social changes ranging from marriage patterns to wars. Validation comes from detailed studies of important social changes, from norms about romantic relationships to economic practices, political institutions, religious customs, and international relations. This book belongs to a trio that includes Brain-Mind: From Neurons to Consciousness and Creativity and Natural Philosophy: From Social Brains to Knowledge, Reality, Morality, and Beauty. They can be read independently, but together they make up a Treatise on Mind and Society that provides a unified and comprehensive treatment of the cognitive sciences, social sciences, professions, and humanities.

Routledge International Handbook of Critical Gang Studies

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  • Pdf File: routledge-international-handbook-of-critical-gang-studies.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Routledge International Handbook of Critical Gang Studies is rooted in the instability, inequality and liquidity of the post-industrial era. It understands the gang as a complex and contradictory phenomenon; a socio-historical agent that reflects, responds to and creates a certain structured environment in spaces which are always in flux. International in scope and drawing on a range of sociological, criminological and anthropological traditions, it looks beyond pathological, ahistorical and non-transformative approaches, and considers other important factors that produce the phenomenon, whether the historically entrenched racialized power structure and segregation in Chicago; the unconstrained state-abandoned development of favelas in Brazil; or the colonization, displacement and dependency of people in Central America. This handbook reflects and defines the new theoretical and empirical traditions of critical gang studies. It offers a variety of perspectives, including: A view of gangs that takes into consideration the global context and appearance of the "gang" in its various forms and stages of development; An appreciation of the gang as a socio-cultural formation; A race-ethnic and class analysis of the gang that problematizes domain assumptions such as the "underclass"; Gender variations of the gang phenomenon with a particular emphasis on their intersectional properties; Relations between gangs and the political economy that address the dominant mode of production and exchange; Treatments that demonstrate the historically contingent nature of gangs and their changes across time; The contradictory impact of gang repressive policies, institutions and practices as part of a broader discussion on the nature of the state in specific societies; and Critical methodologies on gangs that involve discussions of visual and textual representations and the problematics of data collection and analysis. Authoritative, multi-disciplinary and international, this book will be of interest to criminologists, sociologists and anthropologists alike, particularly those engaged with critical criminology/sociology, youth crime, delinquency and global social inequality. The Handbook will also be of interest to policy makers and those in the peacebuilding field.

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

By Mary E. Kite,Bernard E. Whitley, Jr.,Lisa S. Wagner
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  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
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  • Total of Pages : 734
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  • Pdf File: psychology-of-prejudice-and-discrimination.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination provides a comprehensive and compelling overview of what psychological theory and research have to say about the nature, causes, and reduction of prejudice and discrimination. It balances a detailed discussion of theories and selected research with applied examples that ensure the material is relevant to students. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and addresses several interlocking themes. It first looks at the nature of prejudice and discrimination, followed by a discussion of research methods. Next come the psychological underpinnings of prejudice: the nature of stereotypes, the conditions under which stereotypes influence responses to other people, contemporary theories of prejudice, and how individuals’ values and belief systems are related to prejudice. Explored next are the development of prejudice in children and the social context of prejudice. The theme of discrimination is developed via discussions of the nature of discrimination, the experience of discrimination, and specific forms of discrimination, including gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, ability, and appearance. The concluding theme is the reduction of prejudice. The book is accompanied by a comprehensive website featuring an Instructor Manual that contains activities and tools to help with teaching a prejudice and discrimination course; PowerPoint slides for every chapter; and a Test Bank with short answer and multiple-choice exam questions for every chapter. This book is an essential companion for all students of prejudice and discrimination, including those in psychology, education, social work, business, communication studies, ethnic studies, and other disciplines. In addition to courses on prejudice and discrimination, this book will also appeal to those studying racism and diversity.

Social Psychology

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  • Publisher : Cengage Learning Canada Inc
  • Book Code : 0176726861
  • Total of Pages :
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  • Pdf File: social-psychology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Distinguished by its current-events emphasis, strong diversity coverage, and engaging connections drawn between social psychology and students' everyday lives, Social Psychology, Second Canadian Edition, remains one of the most scholarly and well-written texts in its field. Integrating classic and contemporary research, the text also includes comprehensive coverage of social cognition and evolutionary psychology, and features authoritative applications of social psychology to the law, and health. Canadian examples are thoroughly interwoven throughout this edition, delivering relevance and enhancing engagement for readers. In addition, coverage of culture and diversity are integrated into every chapter by Hazel Rose Markus, a leader and respected researcher in the study of cultural psychology.

Case Studies of Famous Trials and the Construction of Guilt and Innocence

By Gorden, Caroline,Birkbeck, Christopher
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  • Publisher : Policy Press
  • Book Code : 1529203724
  • Total of Pages : 324
  • Category : Social Science
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  • Pdf File: case-studies-of-famous-trials-and-the-construction-of-guilt-and-innocence.pdf

Book Short Summary:

From the trials of Oscar Pistorius to O.J. Simpson and Michael Jackson, this innovative book provides a critical review of 11 high profile criminal cases. These case studies examine how ‘guilt’ and ‘innocence’ are constructed in the courts and in wider society, using the themes of evidence and narratives; credibility; rhetoric and oratory in the court room; social status; vulnerability and false confessions; diminished responsibility and the media and social judgments. Written for criminology, sociology, law, and criminal justice students, the book includes: • exercises to extend thinking on each case; • recommended readings for studying the cases and concepts discussed in each chapter; • an extensive specialist reference list including web links to videos and transcripts pertaining to many of the cases discussed in the book. The book delivers an accessible examination of the criminological, sociological, psychological and legal processes underpinning the outcome of criminal cases, and their representation in the media and wider society.

The Psychological Foundations of Evidence Law

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  • Publisher : NYU Press
  • Book Code : 0814783880
  • Total of Pages : 320
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  • Pdf File: the-psychological-foundations-of-evidence-law.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Evidence law is meant to facilitate trials that are fair, accurate, and efficient, and that encourage and protect important societal values and relationships. In pursuit of these often-conflicting goals, common law judges and modern drafting committees have had to perform as amateur applied psychologists. Their task has required them to employ what they think they know about the ability and motivations of witnesses to perceive, store, and retrieve information; about the effects of the litigation process on testimony and other evidence; and about our capacity to comprehend and evaluate evidence. These are the same phenomena that cognitive and social psychologists systematically study. The rules of evidence have evolved to restrain lawyers from using the most robust weapons of influence, and to direct judges to exclude certain categories of information, limit it, or instruct juries on how to think about it. Evidence law regulates the form of questions lawyers may ask, filters expert testimony, requires witnesses to take oaths, and aims to give lawyers and factfinders the tools they need to assess witnesses’ reliability. But without a thorough grounding in psychology, is the “common sense” of the rulemakers as they create these rules always, or even usually, correct? And when it is not, how can the rules be fixed? Addressed to those in both law and psychology, The Psychological Foundations of Evidence Law draws on the best current psychological research-based knowledge to identify and evaluate the choices implicit in the rules of evidence, and to suggest alternatives that psychology reveals as better for accomplishing the law’s goals.

The Handbook of Homicide

By Fiona Brookman,Edward R. Maguire,Mike Maguire
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1118924487
  • Total of Pages : 768
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 816
  • Pdf File: the-handbook-of-homicide.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Handbook of Homicide presents a series of original essays by renowned authors from around the world, reflecting the latest scholarship on the nature, causes, and patterns of homicide, as well as policies and practices for its investigation and prevention. Includes comprehensive coverage of the complex phenomenon of homicide and its various forms Features original contributions from an esteemed team of global experts and scholars with chapters highlighting the authors’ original research Represents the first internationally-focused collection of the latest research on the nature and causes of homicide Covers both the causes and dynamics of homicide, as well as policies and practices intended to address it

Good Kids, Bad City

By Kyle Swenson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Picador
  • Book Code : 1250120241
  • Total of Pages : 288
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 301
  • Pdf File: good-kids-bad-city.pdf

Book Short Summary:

From award-winning investigative journalist Kyle Swenson, Good Kids, Bad City is the true story of the longest wrongful imprisonment in the United States to end in exoneration, and a critical social and political history of Cleveland, the city that convicted them. In the early 1970s, three African-American men—Wiley Bridgeman, Kwame Ajamu, and Rickey Jackson—were accused and convicted of the brutal robbery and murder of a man outside of a convenience store in Cleveland, Ohio. The prosecution’s case, which resulted in a combined 106 years in prison for the three men, rested on the more-than-questionable testimony of a pre-teen, Ed Vernon. The actual murderer was never found. Almost four decades later, Vernon recanted his testimony, and Wiley, Kwame, and Rickey were released. But while their exoneration may have ended one of American history’s most disgraceful miscarriages of justice, the corruption and decay of the city responsible for their imprisonment remain on trial. Interweaving the dramatic details of the case with Cleveland’s history—one that, to this day, is fraught with systemic discrimination and racial tension—Swenson reveals how this outrage occurred and why. Good Kids, Bad City is a work of astonishing empathy and insight: an immersive exploration of race in America, the struggling Midwest, and how lost lives can be recovered.

Reasons to Doubt

By Carolyn Hoyle,Mai Sato
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0192513435
  • Total of Pages : 399
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 538
  • Pdf File: reasons-to-doubt.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book reveals what happens to applications for post-conviction review when those in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland who believe they are wrongfully convicted apply to the Criminal Cases Review Commission, the only body that can refer a case back to the Court of Appeal once appellants opportunities for direct appeal are exhausted. While the Court is obliged to hear all such referrals, the Commission can only refer a case where it believes there is a real possibility that the Court will quash the conviction. The first empirical study of all stages of decision-making within the Commission, this book starts from the premise that the test applied by the Commission (the real possibility test) is not inflexible. Though created by statute and refined through case law, it must be determined on a case-by-case basis, drawing too on cultural and structural variables, alongside fresh evidence gathered by the Commission. Through in-depth analysis of case files and interviews, Hoyle and Sato scrutinize the Commissions operational practices, its working rules and assumptions, considering how these influence its understanding of the real possibility test. Situating their rich empirical data within a framework of the Commissions social, organizational, and legal contexts, this book demonstrates that in its open-ended investigations there is considerable scope for discretion; for thorough exploration of all possible avenues or for choosing a more superficial consideration of a case. It emerges that while structured internal guidance, drawing heavily on Court jurisprudence, shapes decision-making, creating consistency in approach, there remains some variability across cases, over time, that can be accounted for by the different professional backgrounds and personalities of Commission staff.

Intercultural Competence for College and University Students

By Caprice Lantz-Deaton,Irina Golubeva
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Book Code : 3030574466
  • Total of Pages : 300
  • Category : Psychology
  • Members : 608
  • Pdf File: intercultural-competence-for-college-and-university-students.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This practical guide is a must read for students interested in developing the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and values that foster positive relationships with people from diverse cultures both within and outside of the workplace. It contains real-life examples from students drawn from the authors’ work across different countries. In an age of growing diversity and increasing global mobility, living and working with people from different cultural backgrounds is becoming the norm. To address this complex topic, the authors invite students to consider key questions such as: How do our cultural backgrounds influence our behavior towards others? What is intercultural competence and how can it help students to get along in work and life? How can institutions help students to develop intercultural competence? What does it have to do with topics like prejudice, discrimination, and racism? How can intercultural competence facilitate social change and help students to succeed in their careers? Written for students in any country and studying in any discipline, this book includes practical activities designed to help students to develop intercultural competence throughout their time at college or university. It is useful for students as an autonomous learning source, or as a resource for taught courses. Drawing on a comprehensive and rigorous knowledge of the field, the authors have written a thought-provoking analysis and a practical guide to understanding and enacting Intercultural Competence. I learnt from and admire their ambitious vision of the significance of intercultural competence for society and for the lives and careers of their readers.— Michael Byram, author of Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence, Durham University, UK This is a wonderfully readable book, which carefully and clearly explains the concept of intercultural competence, exploring its implications for addressing many of the most crucial issues facing the world today. Based on impeccable scholarship, and containing a wealth of practical activities, this book is highly recommended for students and interested laypeople alike.— Martyn Barrett, University of Surrey, UK An exceptionally user-friendly and theory-informed guidebook that would not only benefit university students but anyone with an interest in intercultural communication. The book is second to none in terms of clarity of presentation and coverage of concepts, models and practical ideas relevant to intercultural competence for the contemporary society. —Anwei Feng, University of Nottingham Ningbo, China An essential handbook and excellent addition to conventional textbooks. Nuanced and down-to-earth explanations about intercultural communication which are accessible to everyone. Insightful explanations for educators and students alike. Easy to use self-study guide with thought-provoking exercises. This book has been long needed and has come at just the right time. --Ivett Guntersdorfer, Founder and Director of the Intercultural Communication Certificate Program, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany

A System of Pleas

By Vanessa A. Edkins,Allison D. Redlich
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0190689250
  • Total of Pages : 240
  • Category : Psychology
  • Members : 689
  • Pdf File: a-system-of-pleas.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Over 95% of criminal convictions are by guilty plea. Trials are the rarity, and while much has been written on jury decision making and various parts of the trial process, the field has been largely silent on the practice that is most likely to affect an individual charged with a crime: plea bargaining. A System of Pleas: Social Science's Contributions to the Real Legal System brings together into one resource the burgeoning body of research on plea bargaining. Drawing attention to the fact that convictions today are nearly synonymous with guilty pleas, this contributed volume begins with an overview and history of plea bargaining, with chapters focusing on defendants, defense attorneys and prosecutors and plea bargains; influences on plea decision-making, including race, juvenile justice system involvement, and innocence; and the results of a "system of pleas", such as sentencing disparities and mass incarceration, collateral consequences, and disenfranchisement. A concluding chapter by the volume's editors examines ways to move forward within an entrenched system. An excellent reference tool for furthering both research and practice, A System of Pleas is a must-have for academics and legal professionals interested in the fields of criminal justice, psychology and law, and related disciplines.

Convicting the Innocent

By Brandon Garrett
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Harvard University Press
  • Book Code : 0674060989
  • Total of Pages : 376
  • Category : Art
  • Members : 506
  • Pdf File: convicting-the-innocent.pdf

Book Short Summary:

DNA exonerations have shattered confidence in the criminal justice system by exposing how often we have convicted the innocent and let the guilty walk free. In this unsettling analysis, Garrett examines what went wrong in the cases of the first 250 people exonerated by DNA testing, and proposes systemic reforms.

The Palgrave Handbook of Deceptive Communication

By Tony Docan-Morgan
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3319963341
  • Total of Pages : 1042
  • Category : Psychology
  • Members : 695
  • Pdf File: the-palgrave-handbook-of-deceptive-communication.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Deception and truth-telling weave through the fabric of nearly all human interactions and every communication context. The Palgrave Handbook of Deceptive Communication unravels the topic of lying and deception in human communication, offering an interdisciplinary and comprehensive examination of the field, presenting original research, and offering direction for future investigation and application. Highly prominent and emerging deception scholars from around the world investigate the myriad forms of deceptive behavior, cross-cultural perspectives on deceit, moral dimensions of deceptive communication, theoretical approaches to the study of deception, and strategies for detecting and deterring deceit. Truth-telling, lies, and the many grey areas in-between are explored in the contexts of identity formation, interpersonal relationships, groups and organizations, social and mass media, marketing, advertising, law enforcement interrogations, court, politics, and propaganda. This handbook is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, academics, researchers, practitioners, and anyone interested in the pervasive nature of truth, deception, and ethics in the modern world.

Infinite Hope

By Anthony Graves
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Beacon Press
  • Book Code : 0807062545
  • Total of Pages : 224
  • Category : Biography & Autobiography
  • Members : 597
  • Pdf File: infinite-hope.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Written by a wrongfully convicted man who spent 16 years in solitary confinement and 12 years on death row, a powerful memoir about fighting for—and winning—exoneration. In the summer of 1992, a grandmother, a teenage girl, and four children under the age of ten were beaten and stabbed to death in Somerville, Texas. The perpetrator set the house on fire to cover his tracks, deepening the heinousness of the crime and rocking the tiny community to its core. Authorities were eager to make an arrest. Five days later, Anthony Graves was in custody. Graves, then twenty-six years old and without an attorney, was certain that his innocence was obvious. He did not know the victims, he had no knowledge about the crime, and he had an airtight alibi with witnesses. There was also no physical evidence linking him to the scene. Yet Graves was indicted, convicted of capital murder, sentenced to death, and, over the course of twelve years on death row, given two execution dates. He was not freed for eighteen years, two months, four days. Through years of suffering the whims of rogue prosecutors, vote-hungry district attorneys, and Texas State Rangers who played by their own rules, Graves was frequently exposed to the dire realities of being poor and black in the criminal justice system. He witnessed fellow inmates who became his friends and confidants be taken away, one by one, to their deaths. And he missed out on seeing his three young sons mature into men. Graves’s only solace was his infinite hope that the state would not execute him for a crime he did not commit. To maintain his dignity and sanity, Graves made sure as many people as possible knew about his case. He wrote letters to whomever he thought would listen. Pen pals in countries all over the world became allies, and he attracted the attention of a savvy legal team that overcame setback after setback, chiseling away at the state’s faulty case against him. Everyone’s efforts eventually worked. After Graves’s exoneration, the original prosecutor on his case was disbarred. Graves is one of a growing number of innocent people exonerated from death row. The moving account of his saga—of his ultimate fight for freedom from inside a prison cell—is as haunting as it is poignant, and as shameful to the legal system as it is inspiring to those on the losing end of it.

Research Methods in the Social and Health Sciences

By Ted Palys,Chris Atchison
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : SAGE Publications
  • Book Code : 1544357680
  • Total of Pages : 752
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 617
  • Pdf File: research-methods-in-the-social-and-health-sciences.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Research Methods in the Social and Health Sciences: Research Decisions, by Ted Palys and Chris Atchison, gives students a thorough, thoughtful, and highly readable introduction to the entire research process from start to finish. From its underlying premise that your research questions and objectives, rather than any specific method, should guide your research, this book discusses each step of the research process, from limiting the scope of a literature review to navigating ethical considerations to deciding which methods are best suited for finding answers to specific research questions to how to analyze data and present findings. Readers are encouraged to think deeply about each step of the research process. The book promotes this deliberation by discussing the strengths and limitations of different methods and. Throughout the process, the authors provide many examples from their own and student research, sharing insights for research decisions arising from that experience. Readers will develop the skills to create solid research questions, perform literature reviews, identify appropriate data sources and methods, conduct research, analyze and interpret data and translate the resulting knowledge generated from the research process to a wider audience– all core parts of the research process –by developing their knowledge and creating confidence in their own decision-making skills. After explaining the unique and often complementary strengths of qualitative and quantitative methods, students focus on what methods are best suited for finding answers to the research questions that interest them. Major types of research including experiments, case studies, surveys, quasi-experiments, ethnographies, focus groups, participatory action research, and archival studies all receive significant coverage. The text illustrates how these methods are enhanced by integrating them with 21st century technologies and combining them in mixed methods projects. Chapters on constructing a research proposal and disseminating research bookend the process with concrete steps in between to support students designing their own original research projects. Study questions at the end of each chapter encourage students to think critically about the research process and how the choices a researcher makes will broaden or constrain what they can find. By the end of the text, social and health science students will feel confident in undertaking ethical and thoughtful research.