July 5, 2022
The Little Ice Age Book

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The Little Ice Age

By Brian Fagan
  • ISBN Code: : 1541618572
  • Publisher : Basic Books
  • Pages : 288
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 525
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : the-little-ice-age.pdf

Book Excerpt :

DIVOnly in the last decade have climatologists developed an accurate picture of yearly climate conditions in historical times. This development confirmed a long-standing suspicion: that the world endured a 500-year cold snap-The Little Ice Age-that lasted roughly from A.D. 1300 until 1850. The Little Ice Age tells the story of the turbulent, unpredictable and often very cold years of modern European history, how climate altered historical events, and what they mean in the context of today's global warming. With its basis in cutting-edge science, The Little Ice Age offers a new perspective on familiar events. Renowned archaeologist Brian Fagan shows how the increasing cold affected Norse exploration; how changing sea temperatures caused English and Basque fishermen to follow vast shoals of cod all the way to the New World; how a generations-long subsistence crisis in France contributed to social disintegration and ultimately revolution; and how English efforts to improve farm productivity in the face of a deteriorating climate helped pave the way for the Industrial Revolution and hence for global warming. This is a fascinating, original book for anyone interested in history, climate, or the new subject of how they interact. /Div

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  • Pdf File: climate-change-and-the-art-of-devotion.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

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  • Pdf File: stupid-things-i-won-t-do-when-i-get-old.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

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  • Pdf File: climate-chaos.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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  • Total of Pages : 608
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  • Pdf File: collapse.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In Jared Diamond’s follow-up to the Pulitzer-Prize winning Guns, Germs and Steel, the author explores how climate change, the population explosion and political discord create the conditions for the collapse of civilization. Diamond is also the author of Upheaval: Turning Points for Nations in Crisis Environmental damage, climate change, globalization, rapid population growth, and unwise political choices were all factors in the demise of societies around the world, but some found solutions and persisted. As in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Diamond traces the fundamental pattern of catastrophe, and weaves an all-encompassing global thesis through a series of fascinating historical-cultural narratives. Collapse moves from the Polynesian cultures on Easter Island to the flourishing American civilizations of the Anasazi and the Maya and finally to the doomed Viking colony on Greenland. Similar problems face us today and have already brought disaster to Rwanda and Haiti, even as China and Australia are trying to cope in innovative ways. Despite our own society’s apparently inexhaustible wealth and unrivaled political power, ominous warning signs have begun to emerge even in ecologically robust areas like Montana. Brilliant, illuminating, and immensely absorbing, Collapse is destined to take its place as one of the essential books of our time, raising the urgent question: How can our world best avoid committing ecological suicide?

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  • Pdf File: operation-angus.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

A New York Times Notable Book The definitive biography of German Chancellor Angela Merkel, detailing the remarkable rise and political brilliance of the most powerful—and elusive—woman in the world. The Chancellor is at once a riveting political biography and an intimate human story of a complete outsider—a research chemist and pastor’s daughter raised in Soviet-controlled East Germany—who rose to become the unofficial leader of the West. Acclaimed biographer Kati Marton set out to pierce the mystery of how Angela Merkel achieved all this. And she found the answer in Merkel’s political genius: in her willingness to talk with adversaries rather than over them, her skill at negotiating without ever compromising on what’s most important to her, her canniness in appointing political rivals to her cabinet and exacting their policies so they have no platform to run against her, the humility to allow others to take credit for things done in tandem, the wisdom to stay out of the papers and off Twitter, and the vision to take advantage of crises to enact bold change. Famously private, the Angela Merkel who emerges in The Chancellor is a role model for anyone interested in gaining and keeping power while holding onto one’s moral convictions—and for anyone looking to understand how to successfully bridge huge divisions within society. No modern leader has so ably confronted Russian aggression, provided homes to over a million refugees, and calmly unified Europe at a time when other countries are becoming more divided. But Marton also describes Merkel’s many challenges, such as her complicated relationship with President Obama, who she at one point refused to speak to. This captivating portrait shows a woman who has survived extraordinary challenges to transform her own country and return it to the global stage. Timely and revelatory, this great morality tale shows the difference an exceptional leader can make for the greater good of a country and the world.

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  • Publisher : Springer
  • Book Code : 3319190423
  • Total of Pages : 360
  • Category : Science
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  • Pdf File: climatic-changes-since-1700.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The proposed book is not only a tribute to the work of Brückner (and indeed also a personal tribute, since Brückner wrote his book at the Institute of Geography of the University of Bern), but references to Brückner’s book are also a conceptual tool in the proposed book, though used sparingly and thoughtfully. Apart from providing historical context, references may facilitate introducing some complex topics, for instance by first presenting Brückner’s view and then complementing the picture with today’s understanding. References can be used for contrast: Comparing Brückner’s methods and data with today’s research concepts makes the progress in the field easily understandable. The enormous growth of information since Brükner’s time allows a much more detailed perspective on some scientific problems. Or references can be used to highlight similarity. Some aspects have not changed over time. Finally, the book complements Brückner’s studies by adding the arguably most interesting and certainly most relevant period, the past 120 years.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1000092321
  • Total of Pages : 648
  • Category : Nature
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  • Pdf File: traditional-plant-foods-of-canadian-indigenous-peoples.pdf

Book Short Summary:

First published in 1991, Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples details the nutritional properties, botanical characteristics and ethnic uses of a wide variety of traditional plant foods used by the Indigenous Peoples of Canada. Comprehensive and detailed, this volume explores both the technical use of plants and their cultural connections. It will be of interest to scholars from a variety of backgrounds, including Indigenous Peoples with their specific cultural worldviews; nutritionists and other health professionals who work with Indigenous Peoples and other rural people; other biologists, ethnologists, and organizations that address understanding of the resources of the natural world; and academic audiences from a variety of disciplines.

The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century

By Geoffrey Parker,Lesley M. Smith
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 113470934X
  • Total of Pages : 320
  • Category : History
  • Members : 441
  • Pdf File: the-general-crisis-of-the-seventeenth-century.pdf

Book Short Summary:

One of the most fierce and wide-ranging debates in historical circles during the last twenty years has concerned the theory that throughout Europe, the seventeenth century was a period of crisis so pervasive, significant and intense that it could be labelled a 'General Crisis'. A number of articles stimulated by the debate were collected and published in a book entitled Crisis in Europe, edited by Trevor Aston. This volume takes the still acrimonious debate up to the present day. The editors have collected together ten important subsequent essays concerning the social, economic and political crises which affected not only Europe but also Asia in the mid-seventeenth century. All the pieces are essential reading for a clear understanding of the period. This new edition of The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century contains fresh research, new perspectives and completely updated bibliographies and index.

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  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
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  • Pdf File: carbon-cycling-in-northern-peatlands.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 184. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands examines the role that northern peatlands play in regulating the atmospheric carbon budget. It summarizes current research in four interconnected areas: large-scale peatland dynamics and carbon cycling; plant and microbial dynamics and their effect on carbon fluxes to the atmosphere; methane accumulation in, and loss from, peatlands; and water and dissolved carbon fluxes through peatlands. The volume highlights include A thorough assessment of the challenges involved in incorporating carbon cycling in northern peatlands into global climate models; A conceptual model to examine the partitioning of terminal carbon mineralization into production of CO2 and CH4; A comprehensive review of the evidence for the accumulation of methane in deep and shallow peat; and A description of the hydrologic changes induced by peat harvesting and associated challenges in restoring altered peatlands to their natural hydrologic regime. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands will be of interest to research scientists and graduate and undergraduate students, particularly those who wish to know more about the role of peatlands in the global carbon cycle and their role as modifiers of climate.

Abrupt Climate Change

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Polar Research Board,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Abrupt Climate Change
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Book Code : 9780309133043
  • Total of Pages : 252
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 846
  • Pdf File: abrupt-climate-change.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The climate record for the past 100,000 years clearly indicates that the climate system has undergone periodic--and often extreme--shifts, sometimes in as little as a decade or less. The causes of abrupt climate changes have not been clearly established, but the triggering of events is likely to be the result of multiple natural processes. Abrupt climate changes of the magnitude seen in the past would have far-reaching implications for human society and ecosystems, including major impacts on energy consumption and water supply demands. Could such a change happen again? Are human activities exacerbating the likelihood of abrupt climate change? What are the potential societal consequences of such a change? Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises looks at the current scientific evidence and theoretical understanding to describe what is currently known about abrupt climate change, including patterns and magnitudes, mechanisms, and probability of occurrence. It identifies critical knowledge gaps concerning the potential for future abrupt changes, including those aspects of change most important to society and economies, and outlines a research strategy to close those gaps. Based on the best and most current research available, this book surveys the history of climate change and makes a series of specific recommendations for the future.

Ice Age Extinction

By Jim Snook
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Algora Publishing
  • Book Code : 9780875865591
  • Total of Pages : 191
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 201
  • Pdf File: ice-age-extinction.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Global warming seen from the other side: by the end of the last ice age, the earth had lost most of its large animal species and most of its humans. In a novel approach the author argues that the main cause of this catastrophic extinction was a drastic reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide, due to the long period of cold, and he backs up his theory with scientific explanations given in clear language for the general reader. The author explores the causes of Earth s cyclical temperature changes and shows how those temperature shifts touch off a chain of events in the atmosphere, in the oceans and on land. Cold temperature was the trigger; and the resultant reduction in carbon dioxide, he argues, was the bullet that killed off so many species. The re-warming released more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and fueled a resurgence which we are still enjoying. In addition, the author describes the human responses to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide after the last ice age and in the last 150 years. Near the end of the last ice age, atmospheric carbon dioxide was about half of what it is today. Due to the lack of carbon dioxide, most of the vegetation disappeared from the middle and high latitudes. Without plants to eat, many large animals became extinct; North America lost three-fourths of its large animals including the woolly mammoth, mastodon, and saber tooth cat. Humans, too, had little to eat in these areas and their population declined dramatically. The book then explains how and why atmospheric carbon dioxide increased by about 50% after the last ice age ended, encouraging a population explosion among plants, animals and humans, all of which then migrated into many previously barren areas. More recently, the 28% increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide in the last 150 years has caused a six-fold increase in the human population. Changes in the next 300 years will reverse some of the current trends. There have been some books on the causes of extinction over the last forty years, but all looked at other causes and none examined the role of low atmospheric carbon dioxide. This book has value for anyone interested in the ice age extinction; glaciers; the glacial cycle; the atmosphere and oceans; the past and future of plants, animals, and humans. It provides long-term information on atmospheric carbon dioxide, global warming and cooling.

After the Ice Age

By E. C. Pielou
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Book Code : 9780226668093
  • Total of Pages : 376
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 692
  • Pdf File: after-the-ice-age.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The fascinating story of how a harsh terrain that resembled modern Antarctica has been transformed gradually into the forests, grasslands, and wetlands we know today. "One of the best scientific books published in the last ten years."—Ottowa Journal "A valuable new synthesis of facts and ideas about climate, geography, and life during the past 20,000 years. More important, the book conveys an intimate appreciation of the rich variety of nature through time."—S. David Webb,Science

Revolution of Russia and the climate

By Bogdan Góralski
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bogdan Góralski
  • Book Code : N.a
  • Total of Pages :
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Members : 850
  • Pdf File: revolution-of-russia-and-the-climate.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Cyclical climate crises shape the biological life on Earth, including the development and decline of subsequent human civilizations. Favorable climatic conditions cause a population increase within every civilization. Then comes the deterioration of climatic conditions and the internal crisis of civilization that sets the leader. Then comes the conquest of external countries and the development of the empire until its fall, which shape a new empire. The development and fall of subsequent civilizations follow the rhythm of the movements of the earth's coating, what I described in my works. Chinggis Khan's empire was born during the climate crisis in Asia. At that time, favorable climatic conditions prevailed in Europe, and it was in the direction of Europe that the Mongol expansion was directed. In the meantime, between the Mughal empire and Napoleon's empire, a powerful Ottoman Empire emerged, whose development indicates the shift of favorable climate zones from East Asia to the west towards Turkey. The empire developed and fell before the summit of the Little Ice Age that was destroying Europe. Russian Empire developed in almost the same time as the Ottoman Empire, and it collapsed in the internal crisis of the Russian revolution during the east European climatic crisis-see in my work below entitled "Russian revolution and the climate." The Little Ice Age caused an internal crisis in Europe, the expansion of Europeans to other continents, and the rise of Napoleon's empire. At that time, favorable climatic conditions prevailed in Asia. Another climate crisis in Asia is approaching, and I am sure that only the global opening of borders and the free migration of peoples can save the world from the Third World War. I present below the chapter of my book titled "Natural History and Climate Changes". III.5.4.1.1. Reasons for the outbreak of the Russian Revolution The analysis of past revolutions leads to the conclusion that two factors are needed for the revolution to take place: the dissatisfied people and the frustrated intelligentsia driving the revolution. The dissatisfaction of the people comes from not fulfilling basic life needs, and the frustration of intelligence is a consequence of the lack of life prospects in the old social order. The environmental factors (natural and social ) determine the emergence of the revolutionary situation. Natural factors would include, above all, climatic factors - atmospheric precipitation and air temperature, which in the case of Russia, are very variable. They determine the basic social parameters - the size and sexual composition of the population developing in favorable climatic conditions for a given territory. For the revolution to take place, a decades-long period of good climatic conditions conducive to population growth and its masculinization would be needed, followed by a deterioration of this climatic situation and the social situation that was linked to it. In the decades before the Russian Revolution, there were better conditions in Russia (rising atmospheric precipitation) and social conditions (reform of education for Alexander I, release from serfdom and other reforms). The later deterioration of the social situation due to overpopulation and hunger of the land was followed by erroneous actions by the authorities that do not take into account the impact of the climatic factor and destroying the rural communities - сообщество. In the run-up to the revolution, climatic conditions gradually improved, and the apogee of the climate crisis took place just before the revolution. The crisis in Europe and the position of European powers pushing for world war caused deterioration of the internal situation in Russia and consequently accelerated the revolution. To the deterioration contributed the coolings of the climate of 1901-1905 and 1914-1918. (See fig. 24). The European elites, mostly landowners, were bankrupted by the constantly going down prices of grain (from 1830 supplied by steamers from the USA (about 15% of Europe's grain needs)) and only war left to escape from it. Probably it was one of the main causes of the First World War, apart from the masculinization of the European population. The social factor decisive for the revolution is the size of the population able to survive in a given territory. When the population rises to the border value for a given territory, it becomes sensitive to any deterioration of living conditions because the environmental resources available to individual units decrease, and also, due to the population density, social distances are reduced, which increases the level of aggression. Such a deterioration in the life situation of the Russian people uprooted Russian nobility, intelligentsia, and the Jewish community occurred in the period preceding the revolution, ie, from 1861 to 1917. The climate crisis and the lack of knowledge about the real problems of Russian society determined the outbreak of the revolution. Another reason was to stop by the state terror of progressive and positive evolution of the patriotically minded Russian intelligentsia. The victory of the Bolshevik Revolution was also decided by anti-Semitism, controlled by tsarism (?). In the further course of my work, I will try to show that the above factors determined the existence of a specific social situation and the outbreak of the Russian Revolution.

Climate, Environment, and Society in the Pacific during the Last Millennium

By Patrick D. Nunn
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Book Code : 9780080548210
  • Total of Pages : 316
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 648
  • Pdf File: climate-environment-and-society-in-the-pacific-during-the-last-millennium.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The nature of global change in the Pacific Basin is poorly known compared to other parts of the world. Climate, Environment, and Society in the Pacific during the Last Millennium describes the climate changes that occurred in the Pacific during the last millennium and discusses how these changes controlled the broad evolution of human societies, typically filtered by the effects of changing sea level and storminess on food availability and interaction. Covering the entire period since AD 750 in the Pacific, this book describes the influences of climate change on environments and societies during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, focusing on the 100-year transition between these – a period of rapid change known as the AD 1300 Event. * Discusses the societal effects of climate and sea-level change, as well as the evidence for externally-driven societal change * Synthsizes how climate change has driven environmental change and societal change in the Pacific Basin * Contains a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the evidence for climate, environmental, and societal change, supported by a full list of references

Wine

By Stefan K. Estreicher
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Algora Publishing
  • Book Code : 0875864775
  • Total of Pages : 186
  • Category : Antiques & Collectibles
  • Members : 891
  • Pdf File: wine.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The story of wine is the story of religion, medicine, science, war, discovery and dream. This compact, engaging, easy-to-read and well-illustrated text covers the essential historical background and the key developments in the history of wine through the ages, with lists of top vintages.

Little Ice Ages Vol2 Ed2

By Jean M Grove
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1134701896
  • Total of Pages : 328
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 908
  • Pdf File: little-ice-ages-vol2-ed2.pdf

Book Short Summary:

First Published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Earth's Climate Evolution

By C. P. Summerhayes
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1118897382
  • Total of Pages : 416
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 731
  • Pdf File: earth-s-climate-evolution.pdf

Book Short Summary:

To understand climate change today, we first need to know how Earth’s climate changed over the past 450 million years. Finding answers depends upon contributions from a wide range of sciences, not just the rock record uncovered by geologists. In Earth’s Climate Evolution, Colin Summerhayes analyzes reports and records of past climate change dating back to the late 18th century to uncover key patterns in the climate system. The book will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about future climate change. The book takes a unique approach to the subject providing a description of the greenhouse and icehouse worlds of the past 450 million years since land plants emerged, ignoring major earlier glaciations like that of Snowball Earth, which occurred around 600 million years ago in a world free of land plants. It describes the evolution of thinking in palaeoclimatology and introduces the main players in the field and how their ideas were received and, in many cases, subsequently modified. It records the arguments and discussions about the merits of different ideas along the way. It also includes several notes made from the author’s own personal involvement in palaeoclimatological and palaeoceanographic studies, and from his experience of working alongside several of the major players in these fields in recent years. This book will be an invaluable reference for both undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in related fields and will also be of interest to historians of science and/or geology, climatology and oceanography. It should also be of interest to the wider scientific and engineering community, high school science students, policy makers, and environmental NGOs. Reviews: "Outstanding in its presentation of the facts and a good read in the way that it intersperses the climate story with the author's own experiences. [This book] puts the climate story into a compelling geological history." -Dr. James Baker "The book is written in very clear and concise prose, [and takes] original, enlightening, and engaging approach to talking about 'ideas' from the perspective of the scientists who promoted them." -Professor Christopher R. Scotese "A thrilling ride through continental drift and its consequences." - Professor Gerald R. North "Written in a style and language which can be easily understood by laymen as well as scientists." - Professor Dr Jörn Thiede "What makes this book particularly distinctive is how well it builds in the narrative of change in ideas over time." - Holocene book reviews, May 2016 "This is a fascinating book and the author’s biographical approach gives it great human appeal." - E Adlard

Historic Native Peoples of Texas

By William C. Foster
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Texas Press
  • Book Code : 0292781911
  • Total of Pages : 366
  • Category : Social Science
  • Members : 214
  • Pdf File: historic-native-peoples-of-texas.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Several hundred tribes of Native Americans were living within or hunting and trading across the present-day borders of Texas when Cabeza de Vaca and his shipwrecked companions washed up on a Gulf Coast beach in 1528. Over the next two centuries, as Spanish and French expeditions explored the state, they recorded detailed information about the locations and lifeways of Texas's Native peoples. Using recent translations of these expedition diaries and journals, along with discoveries from ongoing archaeological investigations, William C. Foster here assembles the most complete account ever published of Texas's Native peoples during the early historic period (AD 1528 to 1722). Foster describes the historic Native peoples of Texas by geographic regions. His chronological narrative records the interactions of Native groups with European explorers and with Native trading partners across a wide network that extended into Louisiana, the Great Plains, New Mexico, and northern Mexico. Foster provides extensive ethnohistorical information about Texas's Native peoples, as well as data on the various regions' animals, plants, and climate. Accompanying each regional account is an annotated list of named Indian tribes in that region and maps that show tribal territories and European expedition routes. This authoritative overview of Texas's historic Native peoples reveals that these groups were far more cosmopolitan than previously known. Functioning as the central link in the continent-wide circulation of trade goods and cultural elements such as religion, architecture, and lithic technology, Texas's historic Native peoples played a crucial role in connecting the Native peoples of North America from the Pacific Coast to the Southeast woodlands.

Unstoppable Global Warming

By Fred Singer,Fred S. Singer,Dennis Avery
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  • Book Code : 0742599922
  • Total of Pages : 264
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 177
  • Pdf File: unstoppable-global-warming.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Supported by in-depth scientific evidence, Singer and Avery present the compelling concept that global temperatures have been rising mostly or entirely because of a natural cycle. Unstoppable Global Warming explains why we're warming, why it's not very dangerous, and why we can't stop it anyway.

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change

By John A Matthews
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Book Code : 1473928192
  • Total of Pages : 1496
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 672
  • Pdf File: encyclopedia-of-environmental-change.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.