July 6, 2022
Spirituality for the Skeptic Book

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Spirituality for the Skeptic

By Robert C. Solomon
  • ISBN Code: : 0199839522
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Pages : 176
  • Category : Religion
  • Reads : 480
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : spirituality-for-the-skeptic.pdf

Book Excerpt :

Is it possible to be spiritual and yet not believe in the supernatural? Can a person be spiritual without belonging to a religious group or organization? In this book, philosopher Robert Solomon offers challenging answers to these questions as he explodes commonly held myths about what is means to be spiritual in today's pluralistic world. Based on Solomon's own struggles to reconcile philosophy with religion, Spirituality for the Skeptic offers a model of a vibrant, fulfilling spirituality that embraces the complexities of human existence and acknowledges the joys and tragedies of life. Solomon has forged an enlightened new path that synthesizes spirituality with emotions, intellect, science, and common sense. His new paradigm, "naturalized" spirituality, establishes as its cornerstone the "thoughtful love of life"--a passionate concern for the here-and-now, and not the by-and-by. Being spiritual doesn't mean being holed up as a recluse, spending hours in meditation and contemplation, Solomon argues. It demands involvement and emotional engagement with others in the struggle to find meaning in our lives. As such, this modern-day spirituality encompasses a passionate enthusiasm for the world, the transformation of self, cosmic trust and rationality, coming to terms with fate, and viewing life as a gift, all of which are explored in depth throughout this book. Spirituality for the Skeptic answers the need for a non-institutional, non-dogmatic spirituality that leads to personal fulfillment and satisfaction. By examining the ideas of great thinkers from Socrates and Nietzsche to Buddha to Kafka, Solomon arrives at a practical vision of spirituality that should appeal to many seekers looking to make sense of the human condition.

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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0190493569
  • Total of Pages : 376
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 422
  • Pdf File: luck-s-mischief.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Something is subject to luck if it is beyond our control. In this book, Haji shows that luck detrimentally affects both moral obligation and moral responsibility. He argues that factors influencing the way we are, together with considerations that link motivation and ability to perform intentional actions, frequently preclude our being able to do otherwise. Since obligation requires that we can do otherwise, luck compromises the range of what is morally obligatory for us. This result, together with principles that conjoin responsibility and obligation, is then exploited to derive the further skeptical conclusion that behavior for which we are morally responsible is limited as well. Throughout these explorations, Haji makes extensive use of concrete cases to test the limits of how we should understand free will moral responsibility, blameworthiness, determinism, and luck itself.

The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy and Psychology of Luck

By Ian M. Church,Robert J. Hartman
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1351258745
  • Total of Pages : 470
  • Category : Philosophy
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  • Pdf File: the-routledge-handbook-of-the-philosophy-and-psychology-of-luck.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Luck permeates our lives, and this raises a number of pressing questions: What is luck? When we attribute luck to people, circumstances, or events, what are we attributing? Do we have any obligations to mitigate the harms done to people who are less fortunate? And to what extent is deserving praise or blame affected by good or bad luck? Although acquiring a true belief by an uneducated guess involves a kind of luck that precludes knowledge, does all luck undermine knowledge? The academic literature has seen growing, interdisciplinary interest in luck, and this volume brings together and explains the most important areas of this research. It consists of 39 newly commissioned chapters, written by an internationally acclaimed team of philosophers and psychologists, for a readership of students and researchers. Its coverage is divided into six sections: I: The History of Luck II: The Nature of Luck III: Moral Luck IV: Epistemic Luck V: The Psychology of Luck VI: Future Research. The chapters cover a wide range of topics, from the problem of moral luck, to anti-luck epistemology, to the relationship between luck attributions and cognitive biases, to meta-questions regarding the nature of luck itself, to a range of other theoretical and empirical questions. By bringing this research together, the Handbook serves as both a touchstone for understanding the relevant issues and a first port of call for future research on luck.

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  • Total of Pages : 272
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Book Short Summary:

Share Your Faith Effectively in a Cynical and Skeptical Age Talking about faith with friends and family members can be a daunting prospect. What do you say if they have questions you can't answer or if they're outright hostile toward God? Actually, you don't have to have all the right answers, just the right questions--and a willingness to listen. As trust and understanding grow, the door to fruitful dialogue will open. How to Talk to a Skeptic shows you how to: · Ask probing questions and avoid being on the defensive in spiritual conversations. · Tell God's story of the world in a winsome and easily understood way. · Gently respond to the most common misunderstandings skeptics have about God. Here's a natural, relational approach to evangelism and a proven way to reach out to an unbelieving world.

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  • Pdf File: prevailing-over-insurmountable-odds.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Inspired by a number of unexpected life-changing experiences, Prevailing Over Insurmountable Odds identifies how the author defeated two major cancers despite rejecting any post-surgical alternative treatments, and also defeated other serious life changing adversities and events. Within the pages of this book you will discover: The origin of most physical illnesses and how they can be prevented. How to overcome most life disrupting physical and nonphysical conditions. How to change your life from a life you do not want to a life you truly want to experience. Why medical science has yet to discover permanent solutions or cures for most serious life disrupting illnesses and conditions, and why you already possess the source that can provide the methods, answers and solutions to most life changing adversities. Why it is only you who can save yourself from any serious life changing adversities and crises. How to cease depending upon everything and anyone for answers, methods and solutions you already possess, and how to access them right here and right now. And much more

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  • Pdf File: a-companion-to-epistemology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

With nearly 300 entries on key concepts, review essays on central issues, and self-profiles by leading scholars, this companion is the most comprehensive and up-to-date single volume reference guide to epistemology. Epistemology from A-Z is comprised of 296 articles on important epistemological concepts that have been extensively revised to bring the volume up-to-date, with many new and re-written entries reflecting developments in the field Includes 20 new self-profiles by leading epistemologists Contains 10 new review essays on central issues of epistemology

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Clarendon Press
  • Book Code : 0191534668
  • Total of Pages : 272
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 323
  • Pdf File: justification-without-awareness.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Virtually all philosophers agree that for a belief to be epistemically justified, it must satisfy certain conditions. Perhaps it must be supported by evidence. Or perhaps it must be reliably formed. Or perhaps there are some other 'good-making' features it must have. But does a belief's justification also require some sort of awareness of its good-making features? The answer to this question has been hotly contested in contemporary epistemology, creating a deep divide among its practitioners. Internalists insist that such awareness is required for justification whereas externalists insist that it isn't. The first part of Michael Bergmann's book argues that internalism faces an inescapable dilemma: either it leads to vicious regress problems and, ultimately, radical skepticism, or it is entirely unmotivated. The second part of the book begins by developing the author's own externalist theory of justification, one imposing both a proper function and a no-defeater requirement. Bergmann concludes by demonstrating the failure of two prominent critiques of externalism, namely, that it is infected with epistemic circularity and that it cannot respond adequately to skepticism. Together, the two parts of the book provide a decisive refutation of internalism and a sustained defense of externalism. Moreover, they do so while placing a high priority on making the author's opponents feel that their positions and objections are understood.

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  • Pdf File: biomythology.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Is the life unexamined by the fMRI not worth living? Can biology replace the humanities in capturing what it means to be human? Biomythology levels the playing field of skepticism, doing for Darwin and science what Richard Dawkins has attempted for God and religion. This irreverent romp reasons: "Once upon a time there were nine planetsscientific truth rests on the faith that future discoveries will not turn today's facts into tomorrow's fairytales." "Science is the art of arranging observations to fit theory. When applied to alter minds rather than matter, the evidence can be as convincing as a serial killer's smile on your first date." "With prenatal testing building better bell curves by controlling the gateway to our brave new world, eugenics is thriving." Biomythology will teach the skeptic to recognize over twenty rhetorical devices of scientific persuasion that can be borrowed to change our worldviews rather than the world we view.

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  • Publisher : Random House
  • Book Code : 1446440753
  • Total of Pages : 240
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  • Pdf File: the-luck-factor.pdf

Book Short Summary:

IS LUCK REAL? Why do some people lead happy successful lives whilst other face repeated failure and sadness? Why do some find their perfect partner whilst others stagger from one broken relationship to the next? What enables some people to have successful careers whilst others find themselves trapped in jobs they detest? And can unlucky people do anything to improve their luck - and lives? Ten years ago, Professor Richard Wiseman decided to search for the elusive luck factor by investigating the actual beliefs and experiences of lucky and unlucky people. The results reveal a radical new way of looking at luck: in many important ways, we make our own luck. If you think you're unlucky, that bad luck may be the direct result of you believing you're unlucky. Wiseman identifies the four simple behavioural techniques that have been scientifically proven to help you attract good fortune. He then shows how you can use these methods to revolutionise every area of your life - including your relationships, personal finances and career.

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Book Short Summary:

Grounded in cutting-edge science but translated for people who speak emoji, Find Your F*ckyeah disrupts the warm and fuzzy "personal growth" fads made fashionable by mock gurus and self-proclaimed #selfcare experts. This bold guide combines humor, pop culture, and psychology to show us why the one-size-fits-all success formulas and trendy morning routines keep us caught in a cycle of boredom and stress, never fully sustaining our happiness. With hard science, guided experiments, and modern wisdom—from Beyoncé to Carl Jung—Alexis Rockley takes us step-by-step through the biological, cultural, and social factors that create our self-limiting beliefs. Debunking self-sabotaging ideals like "You Are a Living Brand" and "You Have One Calling," Rockley encourages us to discover our real, uncensored selves and find a sense of purpose, even when we don't have all the answers. For those of us tired of feeling the pressure to be better, do more, and work faster—to self-optimize and fall in line—Find Your F*ckyeah teaches us how to find joy where we are right now and to let our genuine self-expression guide us.

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  • Book Code : 074563740X
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  • Pdf File: free-will.pdf

Book Short Summary:

What is free will? Why is it important? Can the same act be both free and determined? Is free will necessary for moral responsibility? Does anyone have free will, and if not, how is creativity possible and how can anyone be praised or blamed for anything? These are just some of the questions considered by Joseph Keim Campbell in this lively and accessible introduction to the concept of free will. Using a range of engaging examples the book introduces the problems, arguments, and theories surrounding free will. Beginning with a discussion of fatalism and causal determinism, the book goes on to focus on the metaphysics of moral responsibility, free will skepticism, and skepticism about moral responsibility. Campbell shows that no matter how we look at it, free will is problematic. Thankfully there are a plethora of solutions on offer and the best of these are considered in full in the final chapter on contemporary theories of free will. This includes a rigorous account of libertarianism, compatabilism, and naturalism. Free Will is the ideal introduction to the topic and will be a valuable resource for scholars and students seeking to understand the importance and relevance of the concept for contemporary philosophy.

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  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1351866877
  • Total of Pages : 152
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 475
  • Pdf File: in-defense-of-moral-luck.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The problem of moral luck is that there is a contradiction in our common sense ideas about moral responsibility. In one strand of our thinking, we believe that a person can become more blameworthy by luck. For example, two reckless drivers manage their vehicles in the same way, and one but not the other kills a pedestrian. We blame the killer driver more than the merely reckless driver, because we believe that the killer driver is more blameworthy. Nevertheless, this idea contradicts another feature of our thinking captured in this moral principle: A person’s blameworthiness cannot be affected by that which is not within her control. Thus, our ordinary thinking about moral responsibility implies that the drivers are and are not equally blameworthy. In Defense of Moral Luck aims to make progress in resolving this contradiction. Hartman defends the claim that certain kinds of luck in results, circumstance, and character can partially determine the degree of a person’s blameworthiness. He also explains why there is a puzzle in our thinking about moral responsibility in the first place if luck often affects a person’s praiseworthiness and blameworthiness. Furthermore, the book’s methodology provides a unique way to advance the moral luck debate with arguments from diverse areas in philosophy that do not bottom out in standard pro-moral luck intuitions.

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  • Publisher : Macmillan
  • Book Code : 1429900881
  • Total of Pages : 336
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  • Pdf File: science-friction.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Bestselling author Michael Shermer delves into the unknown, from heretical ideas about the boundaries of the universe to Star Trek's lessons about chance and time A scientist pretends to be a psychic for a day-and fools everyone. An athlete discovers that good-luck rituals and getting into "the zone" may, or may not, improve his performance. A historian decides to analyze the data to see who was truly responsible for the Bounty mutiny. A son explores the possiblities of alternative and experimental medicine for his cancer-ravaged mother. And a skeptic realizes that it is time to turn the skeptical lens onto science itself. In each of the fourteen essays in Science Friction, psychologist and science historian Michael Shermer explores the very personal barriers and biases that plague and propel science, especially when scientists push against the unknown. What do we know and what do we not know? How does science respond to controversy, attack, and uncertainty? When does theory become accepted fact? As always, Shermer delivers a thought-provoking, fascinating, and entertaining view of life in the scientific age.

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  • Pdf File: condensed-matter-nuclear-science.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Read and download full book Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

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By Oxford University Press
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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Book Code : 9780199809103
  • Total of Pages : 22
  • Category : Philosophy
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  • Pdf File: contemporary-skepticism.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of social work find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Philosophy, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study Philosophy. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.oxfordbibligraphies.com.

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  • Publisher : McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
  • Book Code : 0773576487
  • Total of Pages : 386
  • Category : Religion
  • Members : 960
  • Pdf File: make-believing-the-world.pdf

Book Short Summary:

A vigorous defence of a radical ontological pluralism that requires theism and is consistent with traditional Christianity.

The Routledge Companion to Free Will

By Kevin Timpe,Meghan Griffith,Neil Levy
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  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Book Code : 1317635477
  • Total of Pages : 730
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 610
  • Pdf File: the-routledge-companion-to-free-will.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Questions concerning free will are intertwined with issues in almost every area of philosophy, from metaphysics to philosophy of mind to moral philosophy, and are also informed by work in different areas of science (principally physics, neuroscience and social psychology). Free will is also a perennial concern of serious thinkers in theology and in non-western traditions. Because free will can be approached from so many different perspectives and has implications for so many debates, a comprehensive survey needs to encompass an enormous range of approaches. This book is the first to draw together leading experts on every aspect of free will, from those who are central to the current philosophical debates, to non-western perspectives, to scientific contributions and to those who know the rich history of the subject. Its 61 chapters, commissioned especially for this volume from the world’s leading researchers, are framed by a General Introduction and briefer introductions for each of the six sections. A list of References, an annotated Suggested Reading list, and a short list of Related Topics are included at the end of each chapter.

Knowing and Checking

By Guido Melchior
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  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 0429638604
  • Total of Pages : 278
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 936
  • Pdf File: knowing-and-checking.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Checking is a very common concept for describing a subject’s epistemic goals and actions. Surprisingly, there has been no philosophical attention paid to the notion of checking. This is the first book to develop a comprehensive epistemic theory of checking. The author argues that sensitivity is necessary for checking but not for knowing, thereby finding a new home for the much discussed modal sensitivity principle. He then uses the distinction between checking and knowing to explain central puzzles about knowledge, particularly those concerning knowledge closure, bootstrapping and the skeptical puzzle. Knowing and Checking: An Epistemological Investigation will be of interest to epistemologists and other philosophers looking for a general theory of checking and testing or for new solutions to central epistemological problems.

Just Deserts

By Daniel C. Dennett,Gregg D. Caruso
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  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1509545778
  • Total of Pages : 200
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 819
  • Pdf File: just-deserts.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The concept of free will is profoundly important to our self-understanding, our interpersonal relationships, and our moral and legal practices. If it turns out that no one is ever free and morally responsible, what would that mean for society, morality, meaning, and the law? Just Deserts brings together two philosophers – Daniel C. Dennett and Gregg D. Caruso – to debate their respective views on free will, moral responsibility, and legal punishment. In three extended conversations, Dennett and Caruso present their arguments for and against the existence of free will and debate their implications. Dennett argues that the kind of free will required for moral responsibility is compatible with determinism – for him, self-control is key; we are not responsible for becoming responsible, but are responsible for staying responsible, for keeping would-be puppeteers at bay. Caruso takes the opposite view, arguing that who we are and what we do is ultimately the result of factors beyond our control, and because of this we are never morally responsible for our actions in the sense that would make us truly deserving of blame and praise, punishment and reward. Just Deserts introduces the concepts central to the debate about free will and moral responsibility by way of an entertaining, rigorous, and sometimes heated philosophical dialogue between two leading thinkers.

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  • Total of Pages : 241
  • Category : Political Science
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  • Pdf File: believers-skeptics-and-failure-in-conflict-resolution.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book discusses the following questions: Why are some conflicts so enduring and why is conflict resolution so hard? The author begins by introducing two conflicting perspectives, Skeptics and Believers, to highlight the lack of consensus on conflict resolution. The book further examines the literature on the sources of violent conflict, including ethnic, economic, environmental, and religious sources, and investigates the claim that an absence of knowledge, power, or political will are at the center of conflict resolution failures. By focusing on the problem of state formation, the author demonstrates the ways in which the nature of the state contributes to violent conflict. In the end, conflict resolution fails because individuals, groups, and external powers choose war and often prefer it over peaceful alternatives.

The Oxford Handbook of Distributive Justice

By Serena Olsaretti
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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0192571044
  • Total of Pages : 752
  • Category : Philosophy
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  • Pdf File: the-oxford-handbook-of-distributive-justice.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Distributive justice has come to the fore in political philosophy in recent decades: how should we arrange our social and economic institutions so as to distribute fairly the benefits and burdens of social cooperation? Thirty-two leading figures from philosophy and political theory present specially written critical assessments of the state of research on a broad range of questions about distributive justice. The first seventeen chapters examine different views of distributive justice and its role in political philosophy, and consider some key methodological questions facing theorists of justice. The remaining fifteen chapters investigate questions about the implementation of distributive justice with regard to a range of aspects of society, including gender, race, the family, education, work, health, language, migration, and climate change. This Oxford Handbook will be a rich and authoritative resource for anyone working on theories of justice.

The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

By Dr. Steven Novella
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  • Publisher : Grand Central Publishing
  • Book Code : 1538760517
  • Total of Pages : 496
  • Category : Science
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  • Pdf File: the-skeptics-guide-to-the-universe.pdf

Book Short Summary:

An all-encompassing guide to skeptical thinking from podcast host and academic neurologist at Yale University School of Medicine Steven Novella and his SGU co-hosts, which Richard Wiseman calls "the perfect primer for anyone who wants to separate fact from fiction." It is intimidating to realize that we live in a world overflowing with misinformation, bias, myths, deception, and flawed knowledge. There really are no ultimate authority figures-no one has the secret, and there is no place to look up the definitive answers to our questions (not even Google). Luckily, The Skeptic's Guide to the Universe is your map through this maze of modern life. Here Dr. Steven Novella-along with Bob Novella, Cara Santa Maria, Jay Novella, and Evan Bernstein-will explain the tenets of skeptical thinking and debunk some of the biggest scientific myths, fallacies, and conspiracy theories-from anti-vaccines to homeopathy, UFO sightings to N- rays. You'll learn the difference between science and pseudoscience, essential critical thinking skills, ways to discuss conspiracy theories with that crazy co- worker of yours, and how to combat sloppy reasoning, bad arguments, and superstitious thinking. So are you ready to join them on an epic scientific quest, one that has taken us from huddling in dark caves to setting foot on the moon? (Yes, we really did that.) DON'T PANIC! With The Skeptic's Guide to the Universe, we can do this together. "Thorough, informative, and enlightening, The Skeptic's Guide to the Universe inoculates you against the frailties and shortcomings of human cognition. If this book does not become required reading for us all, we may well see modern civilization unravel before our eyes." -- Neil deGrasse Tyson "In this age of real and fake information, your ability to reason, to think in scientifically skeptical fashion, is the most important skill you can have. Read The Skeptics' Guide Universe; get better at reasoning. And if this claim about the importance of reason is wrong, The Skeptics' Guide will help you figure that out, too." -- Bill Nye

Bare Facts and Naked Truths

By George Englebretsen
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  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1351574752
  • Total of Pages : 204
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 453
  • Pdf File: bare-facts-and-naked-truths.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The very idea of truth as a substantial and meaningful concept has been under attack recently from advocates of New Age and postmodern theories. In this book Englebretsen defends the notions of truth and objectivity as key to the scientific view of the natural world and presents an original defence of the 'commonsense' correspondence theory of truth. Englebretsen's approach overcomes the traditional difficulties of correspondence theories of truth with providing adequate and convincing accounts of truth-bearers, truth-makers and the correspondence relation between them by taking truth-bearers to be propositions and facts as constitutive properties of the world. This accessibly written book surveys all of the major competing theories of truth (coherence, pragmatic, redundancy, semantic, deflationary, disquotational, minimalist) before formulating the new defence of the correspondence theory and then exploring the consequences of the theory for issues in epistemology and ontology. The book concludes by showing how the idea of 'propositional depth' can be used to dissolve the Liar paradoxes.

Epistemology Modalized

By Kelly Becker
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1136786317
  • Total of Pages : 192
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 470
  • Pdf File: epistemology-modalized.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book sets out first to explain how two fairly recent developments in philosophy, externalism and modalism, provide the basis for a promising account of knowledge, and then works through the different modalized epistemologies extant in the literature, assessing their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the author proposes the theory that knowledge is reliably formed, sensitive true belief, and defends the theory against objections.

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  • Publisher : Holt Paperbacks
  • Book Code : 9781429996761
  • Total of Pages : 384
  • Category : Science
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  • Pdf File: why-people-believe-weird-things.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Revised and Expanded Edition. In this age of supposed scientific enlightenment, many people still believe in mind reading, past-life regression theory, New Age hokum, and alien abduction. A no-holds-barred assault on popular superstitions and prejudices, with more than 80,000 copies in print, Why People Believe Weird Things debunks these nonsensical claims and explores the very human reasons people find otherworldly phenomena, conspiracy theories, and cults so appealing. In an entirely new chapter, "Why Smart People Believe in Weird Things," Michael Shermer takes on science luminaries like physicist Frank Tippler and others, who hide their spiritual beliefs behind the trappings of science. Shermer, science historian and true crusader, also reveals the more dangerous side of such illogical thinking, including Holocaust denial, the recovered-memory movement, the satanic ritual abuse scare, and other modern crazes. Why People Believe Strange Things is an eye-opening resource for the most gullible among us and those who want to protect them.

Rational Belief

By Robert Audi
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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0190463716
  • Total of Pages : 296
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 498
  • Pdf File: rational-belief.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Rational Belief provides conceptions of belief and knowledge, offers a theory of how they are grounded, and connects them with the will and thereby with action, moral responsibility, and intellectual virtue. A unifying element is a commitment to representing epistemology-which is centrally concerned with belief-as integrated with a plausible philosophy of mind that does justice both to the nature of belief and to the conditions for its formation and regulation. Part One centers on belief and its relation to the will. It explores our control of our beliefs, and it describes several forms belief may take and shows how beliefs are connected with the world outside the mind. Part Two concerns normative aspects of epistemology, explores the nature of intellectual virtue, and presents a theory of moral perception. The book also offers a theory of the grounds of both justification and knowledge and shows how these grounds bear on the self-evident. Rationality is distinguished from justification; each clarified in relation to the other; and the epistemological importance of the phenomenal-for instance, of intuitional experience and other "private" aspects of mental life-is explored. The final section addresses social epistemology. It offers a theory of testimony as essential in human knowledge and a related account of the rational resolution of disagreements.

A Theory of Epistemic Justification

By J. Leplin
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  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 1402095678
  • Total of Pages : 218
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 619
  • Pdf File: a-theory-of-epistemic-justification.pdf

Book Short Summary:

One goal of epistemology is to refute the skeptic. Another, with an equally dist- guished if briefer pedigree, is to make sense of science as a knowledge-acquiring enterprise. The goals are incompatible, in that the latter presupposes that the skeptic is wrong. The incompatibility is not strict. One could have both goals, conditi- ing the latter upon success at the former. In fact, however, epistemologies aimed at the skeptic tend not to get anywhere near science. They’ve got all they can handle guring out how we can know we have hands. I come to epistemology from the philosophy of science, my original interest in which was epistemological. Philosophers of science are concerned with epistemic justi cation, but their question about it is how far it extends. They take justi cation to be unproblematic at the level of ordinary experience; their worries begin with the interpretation of experience as evidence for theory. They are interested in the scope of scienti c knowledge. Having taken a position on this question (1997), - guing that justi cation extends to theoretical hypotheses, I came to wonder about the nature of justi cation generally. This is not a belated discovery of the skeptical problem or a reconsideration of what I took to be unproblematic. It is simply an interest in the possibility of locating epistemic advance in science within a broader understanding of the nature of epistemic justi cation. Now that I know that just- cation extends to theory, I am taking a step back and asking what justi cation is.

Private Wrongs

By Arthur Ripstein
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  • Publisher : Harvard University Press
  • Book Code : 067496991X
  • Total of Pages : 327
  • Category : Law
  • Members : 211
  • Pdf File: private-wrongs.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Tort law recognizes the many ways one person wrongs another. Arthur Ripstein brings coherence to torts’ diversity in a philosophically grounded, analytically powerful theory. He shows that all torts violate the basic moral idea that each person is in charge of his or her own person and property, and never in charge of another’s person or property.

Moral Knowledge and Ethical Character

By Robert Audi
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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 9780195344356
  • Total of Pages : 320
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 722
  • Pdf File: moral-knowledge-and-ethical-character.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book presents an ethical theory that uniquely integrates naturalistic and rationalistic elements. Robert Audi develops his theory in four areas: moral epistemology, the metaphysics of ethics, moral psychology, and the foundations of ethics. Comprising both new and published work, the book sets forth a moderate intuitionism, clarifies the relation between reason and motivation, constructs a theory of intrinsic value and its place in moral obligation, and presents a sophisticated account of moral justification. The concluding chapter articulates a new normative framework built from both Kantian and intuitionist elements. Connecting ethics in novel ways to both the theory of value and the philosophy of action, the essays explore topics such as ethical intuition, reason and judgement, and virtue. Audi also considers major views in the history of ethics, including those of Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Mill, Moore, and W. D. Ross, and engages contemporary work on autonomy, responsibility, objectivity, reasons, and other issues. Clear and conceptually rich, this book makes vital reading for students and scholars of ethics.

Ernest Sosa

By John Greco
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  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 0470755474
  • Total of Pages : 360
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 483
  • Pdf File: ernest-sosa.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This is the first book devoted to the work of Ernest Sosa, one of the most influential contemporary epistemologists. Part of the acclaimed Philosophers and Their Critics series. The editor’s introduction serves as an introduction to Sosa’s epistemology. Contains critical essays by more than twenty of the most prominent epistemologists in the world, commenting on Sosa's work. Concludes with Sosa’s own reply to his critics.

The Philosophy of Philosophy

By Timothy Williamson
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  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Book Code : 1119616727
  • Total of Pages : 688
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 926
  • Pdf File: the-philosophy-of-philosophy.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The expanded new edition of one of the most influential and controversial books about the nature of philosophy published in the past several decades The Philosophy of Philosophy presents an original, unified concept of philosophy as a non-natural science. In this provocative work, distinguished philosopher Timothy Williamson challenges widely-held assumptions and clarifies long-standing misconceptions about the methodology and nature of philosophical inquiry. The author rejects the standard narratives of contemporary philosophy developed from naturalism, the linguistic turn, postmodern irony, and other prominent trends of the twentieth century. Viewing the method of philosophy as evolving from non-philosophical pursuits, Williamson provides readers with fresh insight into the “self-image” of philosophy and offers new ways of understanding what philosophy is and how it actually works. Now in its second edition, this landmark volume comprises the original book and the author’s subsequent work. New topics include the recent history of analytic philosophy, assessments of experimental philosophy, theories of concepts and understanding, Wittgensteinian approaches, popular philosophy, naturalism, morally-loaded examples in philosophy, philosophical applications of scientific methods, and many more. This edition features the author’s latest thoughts on a variety of issues, autobiographical reflections, and replies to critics. Proposes an alternative narrative about the nature of philosophy Argues that the common assumption of philosophical exceptionalism is false Highlights the similarities between philosophy and the other sciences in both methodology and subject matter Explores why contemporary philosophy has failed to articulate an adequate methodology Emphasizes increasing the methodological standards of reasoning in philosophy The Philosophy of Philosophy, Second Edition remains essential reading for philosophers, scholars, graduate and advanced undergraduate students in philosophy, and other readers with a sustained interest in the method and rationale of the doing of philosophy.

The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism

By John Greco
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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Book Code : 0199909857
  • Total of Pages :
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Members : 819
  • Pdf File: the-oxford-handbook-of-skepticism.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In the history of philosophical thought, few themes loom as large as skepticism. Skepticism has been the most visible and important part of debates about knowledge. Skepticism at its most basic questions our cognitive achievements, challenges our ability to obtain reliable knowledge; casting doubt on our attempts to seek and understand the truth about everything from ethics, to other minds, religious belief, and even the underlying structure of matter and reality. Since Descartes, the defense of knowledge against skepticism has been one of the primary tasks not just of epistemology but philosophy itself. The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism features twenty-six newly commissioned chapters by top figures in the field. Part One contains articles explaining important kinds of skeptical reasoning. Part Two focuses on responses to skeptical arguments. Part Three concentrates on important contemporary issues revolving around skepticism. As the first volume of its kind, the articles make significant contributions to the debate on skepticism.