July 5, 2022
Catalunya, One Nation, Two States Book

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Catalunya, One Nation, Two States

By A. Alland
  • ISBN Code: : 0230603173
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Pages : 209
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 511
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : catalunya-one-nation-two-states.pdf

Book Excerpt :

This book deals with the culture of Catalan resistance to assimilation, through the maintenance of the Catalan language as an expression of identity. This book argues that the Catalans also developed a series of cultural mechanisms to foster identity through intellectual and recreational pursuits, as well as through an emphasis on language.

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  • Pdf File: transition-state.pdf

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  • Pdf File: quantum-states-and-scattering-in-semiconductor-nanostructures.pdf

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  • Pdf File: the-role-of-circuit-courts-in-the-formation-of-united-states-law-in-the-early-republic.pdf

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  • Pdf File: quantum-mechanics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Quantum mechanics was developed during the first few decades of the twentieth century via a series of inspired guesses made by various physicists, including Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, and Dirac. All these scientists were trying to construct a self-consistent theory of microscopic dynamics that was compatible with experimental observations. The purpose of this book is to present quantum mechanics in a clear, concise, and systematic fashion, starting from the fundamental postulates, and developing the theory in as logical a manner as possible. Topics covered in the book include the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, angular momentum, time-independent and time-dependent perturbation theory, scattering theory, identical particles, and relativistic electron theory.

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  • Pdf File: controlling-steady-state-and-dynamical-properties-of-atomic-optical-bistability.pdf

Book Short Summary:

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Book Short Summary:

Relativistic Quantum Mechanics - Wave Equations concentrates mainly on the wave equations for spin-0 and spin-1/2 particles. Chapter 1 deals with the Klein-Gordon equation and its properties and applications. The chapters that follow introduce the Dirac equation, investigate its covariance properties and present various approaches to obtaining solutions. Numerous applications are discussed in detail, including the two-center Dirac equation, hole theory, CPT symmetry, Klein's paradox, and relativistic symmetry principles. Chapter 15 presents the relativistic wave equations for higher spin (Proca, Rarita-Schwinger, and Bargmann-Wigner). The extensive presentation of the mathematical tools and the 62 worked examples and problems make this a unique text for an advanced quantum mechanics course.

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Book Short Summary:

Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Barron’s updated IELTS provides practice for both Academic and General Training tests. Get practice and explanations for all of the question types, plus audio tracks for the listening section. This edition features: Four practice Academic tests reflective of the most recent exams Two practice General Training tests Online audio for all tests and activities An audioscript for the listening sections ​Explanatory answers for all test questions ​Practice with all question types, including multiple-choice, short answer, sentence completion, flowchart completion, graphs, tables, note taking, summarizing, labeling diagrams and maps, classification, matching, and selecting from a list The IELTS is used as a measure of English-language proficiency by over 7,000 educational institutions, government departments and agencies, and professional organizations in 135 countries.

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  • Pdf File: frontiers-of-collective-motions.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The physics of nuclear collective motion was pioneered by A Bohr and B R Mottelson 50 years ago. Since then, experimental and theoretical development in this field has been remarkable under the leadership of the Copenhagen group. In the 21st century, a new era has opened up due to the recent developments of experimental facilities, especially radioactive ion beams and large γ-ray arrays. Interest in collective motions is now shared in the research of other quantum many-body systems — for example, microclusters and Bose–Einstein condensation. It is therefore timely and important to review the current understanding of collective motions and discuss new directions of future study. The main topics of the symposium include recent theoretical and experimental progress in the understanding of vibrational and rotational motions in nuclei. Collective motions of Bose–Einstein condensation and microclusters are also addressed. The symposium invited several keynote speakers to review and discuss our present understanding and to identify future challenges. Oral presentations are also selected from submitted contributions. This symposium is an opportunity not just to present progress and future prospects but to exchange new ideas and to provoke controversies through intellectual debates. The proceedings have been selected for coverage in: • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (ISTP CDROM version / ISI Proceedings) Contents:Slow Rotation of a Superfluid Trapped Fermi Gas (P Schuck)Chiral Doublet Bands in Triaxial Nuclei (D B Fossam)Coulomb Dissociation of Halo Nuclei (T Nakamura)Collective Modes in Nuclear Systems Far from Stability (A Vitturi)New Results in the Study of Superfluid Nuclei: Properties of Collective States, Many-Body Effects (P F Bortignon)Exotic Structure of Carbon Isotopes (T Suzuki)Time-Dependent Dynamics of the Bose–Fermi Mixed Condensed System (T Maruyama)New Aspects of Orbital Motion in Collective Nuclear Excitations (A Richter)Nuclear Moments of Inertia Inferred from Wobbling Motion in the Triaxial Superdeformed Nuclei (M Matsuzaki)Symmetries in Nuclei (A Arima)and other papers Readership: Graduate students, researchers and academics in atomic physics, quantum physics and nuclear physics. Keywords:Wobbling Motions;Chiral Bands;Bose-Einstein Condensation;New Shell Structure;Drip Line Nuclei;Symmetry in Quantum Physics

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Book Short Summary:

Wide-band-gap semiconductors have been a research topic for many decades. However, it is only in recent years that the promise for technological applications came to be realized; simultaneously an upsurge of experimental and theoretical activity in the field has been witnessed. Semiconductors with wide band gaps exhibit unique electronic and optical properties. Their low intrinsic carrier concentrations and high breakdown voltage allow high-temperature and high-power applications (diamond, SiC etc.). The short wavelength of band-to-band transitions allows emission in the green, blue, or even UV region of the spectrum (ZnSe, GaN, etc.). In addition, many of these materials have favorable mechanical and thermal characteristics. These proceedings reflect the exciting progress made in this field. Successful p-type doping of ZnSe has recently led to the fabrication of blue-green injection lasers in ZnSe; applications of short-wavelength light-emitting devices range from color displays to optical storage. In SiC, advances in growth techniques for bulk as well as epitaxial material have made the commercial production of high-temperature and high-frequency devices possible. For GaN, refinement of growth procedures and new ways of obtaining doped material have resulted in blue-light-emitting diodes and opened the road to the development of laser diodes. Finally, while the quality of artificial diamond is not yet high enough for electronic applications, the promise it holds in terms of unique material properties is encouraging intense activity in the field. This volume contains contributions from recognized experts presently working on different material systems in the field. The papers cover the theoretical, experimental and application-oriented aspects of this exciting topic.

Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

By
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  • Category : Science
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  • Pdf File: advances-in-atomic-molecular-and-optical-physics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Established in 1965, Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics continues its tradition of excellence with Volume 34. The latest volume includes nine reviews of topics related to the applications of atomic and molecular physics to atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

State Participation in International Treaty Regimes

By Srini Sitaraman
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  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Book Code : 1317050436
  • Total of Pages : 346
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  • Pdf File: state-participation-in-international-treaty-regimes.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Why do some states resist entering into international treaty regimes while others demonstrate eagerness to participate? Although factors such as degree of pressure exerted by international actors, ambiguity in the treaty language and a regime's 'lack of teeth' (enforcement and sanctioning mechanism) do affect participation, this book investigates whether internal (domestic) factors may ultimately be responsible for influencing why a state resists or joins international treaty regimes. The volume draws on United Nations treaty ratification data from three different issue areas - arms control, environment and human rights - to study the participation patterns of democracies and non-democracies in international treaty regimes. Incorporating two in-depth case studies on the United States and China, the author traces the impact of domestic institutional structure, state capacity and internal social norms on state decisions to resist or participate.

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By Dieter Meschede,Thomas Udem,Tilman Esslinger
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  • Book Code : 3319643460
  • Total of Pages : 812
  • Category : Science
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  • Pdf File: exploring-the-world-with-the-laser.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This edition contains carefully selected contributions by leading scientists in high-resolution laser spectroscopy, quantum optics and laser physics. Emphasis is given to ultrafast laser phenomena, implementations of frequency combs, precision spectroscopy and high resolution metrology. Furthermore, applications of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics are widely covered. This book is dedicated to Nobel prize winner Theodor W. Hänsch on the occasion of his 75th birthday. The contributions are reprinted from a topical collection published in Applied Physics B, 2016. Selected contributions are available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com. Please see the copyright page for further details.

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This thesis unites the fields of optical atomic clocks and ultracold molecular science, laying the foundation for optical molecular measurements of unprecedented precision. Building upon optical manipulation techniques developed by the atomic clock community, this work delves into attaining surgical control of molecular quantum states. The thesis develops two experimental observables that one can measure with optical-lattice-trapped ultracold molecules: extremely narrow optical spectra, and angular distributions of photofragments that are ejected when the diatomic molecules are dissociated by laser light pulses. The former allows molecular spectroscopy approaching the level of atomic clocks, leading into molecular metrology and tests of fundamental physics. The latter opens the field of ultracold chemistry through observation of quantum effects such as matter-wave interference of photofragments and tunneling through reaction barriers. The thesis also describes a discovery of a new method of thermometry that can be used near absolute zero temperatures for particles lacking cycling transitions, solving a long-standing experimental problem in atomic and molecular physics.

The Physics of Quantum Mechanics

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  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
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  • Pdf File: the-physics-of-quantum-mechanics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

The Physics of Quantum Mechanics aims to give students a good understanding of how quantum mechanics describes the material world. It shows that the theory follows naturally from the use of probability amplitudes to derive probabilities. It stresses that stationary states are unphysical mathematical abstractions that enable us to solve the theory's governing equation, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Every opportunity is taken to illustrate the emergence of the familiar classical, dynamical world through the quantum interference of stationary states. The text stresses the continuity between the quantum world and the classical world, which is merely an approximation to the quantum world. The connections between observables, operators and transformations are clearly explained and the standard commutation rules derived from the properties of spacetime. A chapter is devoted to entanglement, quantum computation, density operators and their role in thermodynamics, and the measurement problem. Scattering phenomena, including the origin of radioactivity, are handled early on in the accessible context of one dimension, and at the end of the book with some rigour in three dimensions. Hydrogen and helium are discussed in some detail and it is shown that quantum mechanics enables us to understand the structure of the periodic table without engaging with the complexities of many-electron atoms. Dirac notation is used from the outset and students are trained to move easily from one representation to another, choosing whichever representation is best suited to a particular problem. The mathematical prerequisites are no more than simple vector algebra, Taylor series expansion and the use of integrating factors to solve linear first order differential equations. Rigorous algebraic methods are preferred to the solution of partial differential equations.

Advances in Nuclear Physics

By Michel Baranger,Erich Vogt
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 1461582288
  • Total of Pages : 448
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 508
  • Pdf File: advances-in-nuclear-physics.pdf

Book Short Summary:

1 The Investigation of Hole States in Nuclei by Means of Knockout and Other Reactions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Formalism for Knockout and Pickup Reactions.- 2.1. The Matrix Element and Overlap Integral.- 2.2 The Single-Nucleon Case.- 2.3. The Two-Nucleon Case.- 2.4. The Multi-Nucleon Case.- 2.5. Distortion and Finite-Range Effects.- 3. Single-Nucleon Knockout and Related Reactions.- 3.1. Comparison of Knockout and Pickup Reactions.- 3.2. Special Features of Knockout Reactions.- 3.3. Spectroscopic Studies.- 3.4. Proton States.- 3.5. Neutron States.- 4. Cluster Knockout and Related Reactions.- 4.1.

Exotic Nuclei (Iasen-2013) - Proceedings Of The First International African Symposium On Exotic Nuclei

By Yuri Erastovich Penionzhkevich,Evgeni A Cherepanov,Dmitri Kamanin,Robert Bark,John Christopher Cornell
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Book Code : 9814632058
  • Total of Pages : 692
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 212
  • Pdf File: exotic-nuclei.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book is a collection of talks presented at the First International African Symposium on Exotic Nuclei (IASEN-2013). The symposium was held at Cape Town, South Africa from 2 - 6 December 2013. The IASEN2013 was dedicated to the problems of producing and investigating nuclei far from the line of stability. The symposium was organized by two scientific centers: iThemba LABS, South Africa and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna).The main goal of the Symposium was to discuss the latest results on the production and study of the properties of the lightest to heaviest nuclei, as well as the plans for future joint investigations in the field of exotic nuclei. The talks were presented by the leading scientists in the field. Among the topics of the symposium were the following: production and study of properties of nuclei in extreme states, strongly deformed nuclei, highly excited and nuclei far from the line of stability as well as nuclei having large angular momenta. New results of the investigations are presented in this book. In particular, the latest results on the synthesis of new superheavy elements are also presented. At the Symposium were talks devoted to existing detecting devices and accelerators of exotic nuclei as well as to the future projects for the creation of similar set-ups.

Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

By Berardo Ruggiero,Per Delsing,Carmine Granata,Yuri A. Pashkin,P. Silvestrini
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 0387311432
  • Total of Pages : 337
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 899
  • Pdf File: quantum-computing-in-solid-state-systems.pdf

Book Short Summary:

Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing for information processing devices; in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems are presented. The complementary theoretical contributions provide models of minimizing decoherence in the different systems. Most recent theoretical and experimental results on macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as the realization of solid-state qubits and quantum gates are discussed. Particular attention is given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems---including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices---are also discussed.

Novel Superfluids

By Karl-Heinz Bennemann,John B. Ketterson
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Book Code : 0191650196
  • Total of Pages : 648
  • Category : Science
  • Members : 526
  • Pdf File: novel-superfluids.pdf

Book Short Summary:

This book reports on the latest developments in the field of Superfluidity. The phenomenon has had a tremendous impact on the fundamental sciences as well as a host of technologies. It began with the discovery of superconductivity in mercury in 1911, which was ultimately described theoretically by the theory of Bardeen Cooper and Schriever (BCS) in 1957. The analogous phenomena, superfluidity, was discovered in helium in 1938 and tentatively explained shortly thereafter as arising from a Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) by London. But the importance of superfluidity, and the range of systems in which it occurs, has grown enormously. In addition to metals and the helium liquids the phenomena has now been observed for photons in cavities, excitons in semiconductors, magnons in certain materials, and cold gasses trapped in high vacuum. It very likely exist for neutrons in a neutron star and, possibly, in a conjectured quark state at their center. Even the Universe itself can be regarded as being in a kind of superfluid state. All these topics are discussed by experts in the respective subfields.

Angular Correlations in Nuclear Disintegration

By Hans van Krugten,Bob van Nooijen
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Book Code : 9401177317
  • Total of Pages : 636
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Members : 145
  • Pdf File: angular-correlations-in-nuclear-disintegration.pdf

Book Short Summary:

In 1969 we feit that the subject of angular correlations in nuclear disintegrat ion had received little special attention at international conferences. It is true that perturbed angular correlations had been discussed at a smalI, highly - specialised meeting at Uppsala in 1963 and that in 1967 certain aspects of perturbed angular correlations had been considered at a conference on hyperfine structure at Asilomar. However, both conferences were very limited in scope from the point of view of a low - energy nuclear physicist. Besides, since these conferences were being held, the field of perturbed ?ngular correlations had received new impetus from the still ex panding application of the implantation of radioactive isotopes in suitable environ ments, from the construction of large superconductive magnets, etc. Meanwhile, the technique of measuring correlations between beta particles and circularly polarized gamma rays had been developed to such a degree that they lent themselves to the in vestigation of beta decay, nuclear structure and charge dependence of nuclear forces. The systematic study of heavy elements had increased the import an ce of alpha-gamma angular correlations which present their own specific problems. Theoretical internal conversion data had become available to such an extent that electron -gamma direct ional correlations became an important tool in the investigation of nuclear structure: in a large number of cases it is more advantageous to study electron -gamma corre lations instead of the commonly measured gamma -gamma directional correlations.